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Puzzle Regarding the Inner Structure of Protons

Credit: CERN


By Amal Pushp, Affiliate Physicist at the Resonance Science Foundation

Protons are amongst the most puzzling and intriguing particles in the universe. It has been an established scientific fact that protons are made up of a further combination of two up and one down quarks. These quarks are also held together through a binding particle called a gluon, which mediates the strong nuclear force. Collectively quarks and gluons are called partons. Although protons have an inner substructure there’s still a lack of knowledge about what exactly is the overall nature of its inner foundation. A reason for this might be that new experimental probes keep indicating new data.

Currently, in the mainstream, physicists have been surprised by a lot of problems associated with the properties of protons, one of which is called the proton radius puzzle. This paradox deals with the size of the proton. Several probes have come up with a different value for the radius of the proton and...

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Experiment Generates Particles from the Vacuum

Black Hole Physics of Particle Creation Mimicked in Table-top experiment with Graphene: Experiment Verifies Long-standing Prediction of Using the Electric Field to Generate Particles from the Quantum Vacuum
By: William Brown, scientist at the Resonance Science Foundation

The Quantum Vacuum—Ubiquitous Mass-energy of Space

There is a hypothetical state of space referred to in physics as the vacuum. The idea of the vacuum is a completely empty space devoid of any matter, energy, or forces. This state is hypothetical because it does not exist anywhere in nature. The reason for this is that the very fabric of the universe, space, is a substantive medium, a sea of energy. In fact, the preeminent physicist Paul Dirac— known for the Dirac equation, an extension of the Schrodinger equation that is consistent with special relativity— posited that the vacuum must be filled with an infinite sea of negative energy electrons (see also his fascinating work on the large...

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The Generalized Holographic Model, Part III: The Electron and the Holographic Mass Solution

The first direct observation of the orbital structure of an excited hydrogen atom, made using a newly developed "quantum microscope." (Stodolna et al. / Physical Review Letters).


By Dr. Inés Urdaneta, Physicist at Resonance Science Foundation

In the first part of this series, entitled The Generalized Holographic Model, Part I: The Holographic Principle, we introduced the holographic principle as developed by David Bohm, Gerard 't Hooft, Jacob Bekenstein and Stephen Hawking. This principle states that the information contained in the volume of a Black hole is holographically present in the boundary or event horizon of the black hole. Then, in the second part The generalized holographic model part II: Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass Solution, we introduced Nassim Haramein's generalization of such principle, where he includes the volume information or degrees of freedom in the volume as well. This generalization allows to define a holographic ratio that accounts...

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Manipulating Quantum Laws to Create Efficient Quantum Devices and Enhancing Quantum Communication Technology

Credit: American Physical Society  


 By Amal Pushp, Affiliate Physicist at the Resonance Science Foundation 

This year’s Nobel prize in physics has been awarded to three physicists for fundamental discoveries in the foundations of quantum mechanics. Specifically, it has been awarded for proving the violation of Bell’s inequalities through experiments involving the entanglement of photons, and the advancement of the science of quantum information, in general, brought about by the discoveries. RSF Physicist Dr. Ines Urdaneta has already described this year’s Nobel prize in her latest article. The reader is advised to check it out for more details.  

In this article, our focus is on the manipulation of this fundamental knowledge posed by some of the related work in the creation of efficient quantum devices. Our aim is to discuss some of the recent progress in quantum technology which apparently builds on the laws of quantum mechanics and...

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2022 Physics Nobel Prize Awarded to Non-Locality!

The three Nobel Laureates of the 2022 Nobel Prize in Physics, for their experiments with entangled particles that established Bell’s inequality violations and pioneered quantum information science. From left-to-right: Alain Aspect, John Clauser, and Anton Zeilinger. Credit: The Nobel Prize in Physics, 2022


By Dr. Inés Urdaneta, Physicist at Resonance Science Foundation

We are thrilled about this year’s physics Nobel prize announcement because the topic concerned is extremely relevant in the context of our Unified Physics Theory.

Quantum entanglement, coined by Albert Einstein as spooky action at a distance, has its origin in a thought experiment from Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen, based on a discussion about the apparent impossibility of quantum mechanics to provide a complete description of reality. Such impossibility was due to the Heisenberg incertitude principle, positing that position and momentum of quantum particles can’t be...

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Galactic Engines

Active galactic nuclei feedback drives the formation and evolution of galaxies
By RSF scientists Dr. Inés Urdaneta, Amal Pushp (affiliate researcher), and William Brown

For over 25 years physicist Nassim Haramein has been describing primordial black holes as the organizational nuclei of physical systems across scale, from the micro to the cosmological. The reasoning is straight-forward, black holes function as the organizational nucleus for organized matter because they are engines of mass-energy generation and their spin—we discuss this in detail in a later section regarding the Haramein-Rauscher spacetime metric—produces a highly coherent region of quantized spacetime that has a specific ordering parameter. This applies for organized matter across scale—see Haramein’s paper on a Scaling law for Organized Matter [1]—from particles [2-4], to planets, stars, galaxies, and the universe itself [5]. Within the last few decades, in verification of...

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On the Mystery of Jupiter’s Cyclones Geometrical Patterns and Stability

Cyclones in North pole of Jupiter, by Juno Spacecraft. Image from original paper [1].


By Dr. Inés Urdaneta, Physicist at Resonance Science Foundation

Jupiter, the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in our Solar System, is a gas giant primarily composed of hydrogen, though helium constitutes one-quarter of its mass and one-tenth of its volume. It is thought to have a rocky core of heavier elements, though it lacks a well-defined solid surface, like the other giant planets in the Solar System. Its outer atmosphere is defined by a series of latitudinal bands, with turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. Jupiter is mostly known for its Great Red Spot, a giant storm which has been observed since at least 1831.

Diagram of Jupiter, its interior, surface features, rings, and inner moons. If Jupiter has an actual core or if there's actually metallic hydrogen inside, is currently purely theoretical. Credit image: Kelvinsong

Juno spacecraft is the latest probe...

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Quark-Gluon Plasma and the Size of the Nucleons

By Amal Pushp, Affiliate Physicist at the Resonance Science Foundation  

The atomic nucleus of an atom consists of protons and neutrons bound together via strong nuclear interaction. Due to this, protons and neutrons are also called nucleons. Furthermore, protons and neutrons have inner substructure and consist of a combination of up and down quarks as well as gluons, which are particles mediating the strong force. Physicists usually probe the structure of nucleons with particle collisions in accelerators. Specifically, the development of the quark model in particle physics emerged by investigating the deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons for which the investigators were also awarded a Nobel prize back in 1990.  

What happens when we heat atomic nuclei at high temperatures? We eventually achieve a new state of matter called quark-gluon plasma. Quark-gluon plasma may be defined as a state of matter in which the elementary...

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JWST Image of Rings Around Star WR140 Leaves Astrophysicists Baffled!

With its mid-infrared instrument (MIRI), the James Webb Space Telescope captured the star WR140 surrounded by strange concentric shells that gradually fade away.(Image credit: NASA/ESA /CSA /Ryan Lau /JWST ERS Team /Judy Schmidt)


By Dr. Inés Urdaneta, Physicist at Resonance Science Foundation

An image taken by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in July 2022 showing a star named Wolf-Rayet 140 (WR 140) surrounded by regular ripple-like circles that gradually fade away, was released on Twitter by scientist Judy Schmidt. Star WR140 is in the Cygnus constellation and resides around 5,600 light-years from Earth. The image ignited a torrent of comments, making astronomers and astrophysicists scratch their heads over this unexplained observation.

Wolf-Rayet stars are rare, only 600 have been found, and they’re very short-lived, generating powerful winds that push huge amounts of gas and dust into space, while loosing most of their mass in the process. In this...

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The Puzzle of Baryon Asymmetry and the Cosmic Origin of Matter

Credit: M. Weiss / Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

By Amal Pushp, Affiliate Physicist at the Resonance Science Foundation

At the very beginning of our universe, a short phase after the big bang, everything is supposed to have existed in the form of a hot soup of particles, presumably containing equal proportions of matter and anti-matter. As the universe expanded in size, the overall temperature lowered and particles coalesced together to form the various structures that we detect with our modern-day astronomical instruments and technology. 

Anti-matter, which is basically the opposite of matter, in most respects behaves just like its matter counterpart, the only key difference is in the charge that it carries. For example, the anti-particle of the electron, a negatively charged particle, is called the positron, which as the name suggests is positively charged. An interaction between electron and positron causes annihilation leaving just photonic radiation behind....

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