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A Brief History of the Electron

Image source: exciton’s probability cloud showing where the electron is most likely to be found around the hole.  

By Inés Urdaneta, Physicist at Resonance Science Foundation

Whereas our direct experience with protons in everyday life is not evident at all, our experience with electrons is quite different. Many of us are probably familiar with the phenomenon of static electricity that bristles our skin when we rub certain materials. We are also probably used to the notion of electricity as a current or flow of electrons that can light a bulb, turn on an electrical device, or even electrocute someone if not handled properly. We are probably also aware that matter is composed of atoms, and that atoms are composed mainly of protons and electrons. Most of our daily experience is governed by electrons and their interactions with light. Electrons also govern the physico-chemical properties of atoms. Interestingly, the inference and discovery of the electron predates the...

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Spontaneous Formation of RNA in Volcanic Glass! Origin of prebiotic RNA?

LucynaKoch / Getty Images

By Inés Urdaneta, Physicist at Resonance Science Foundation

The origin of prebiotic RNA (ribonucleic acid) is one of the deepest mysteries in biology.

RNA and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) are nucleic acids; macromolecules called biopolymers, and they are essential in life, since they play a critical role in biological processes such as coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes. RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides (monomers composed of 5-carbon sugars, phosphates groups and a nitrogenous base), just like DNA, but unlike DNA that has a paired double strand, RNA is found in nature as a single strand folded onto itself. If the sugar involved is ribose, the biopolymer is RNA; if the sugar is the ribose derivative deoxyribose, the resulting biopolymer is DNA.

Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to bring genetic information that directs synthesis of specific proteins, among other functions.

The general idea in the development of...

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Fractal Behavior Found in High Energy Collisions and Bose Einstein Condensate Formation!

By Inés Urdaneta, Physicist at Resonance Science Foundation

In recent years, an extraordinary and unexpected feature in high energy collisions (collisions of subatomic particles at extremely speeds, performed mainly at CERN) has surprised the physicists working on the nucleonic scale: a fractal pattern that had been observed intermittently in high energy experimental data (particularly in the behavior of the particle multiplicity against the collision energy), can be accounted for by the Yang-Mills Field (YMF) equations, which recently have been shown to present fractal structure, as claimed by the authors of the study.  

These theories that apply to subatomic particles, such as protons, electrons and quarks, belong to the category of distinguishable particles called fermions, and the way these particles distribute in different energy levels (also known as states) is described by Fermi Dirac Statistics. Fermi Dirac statistics is commonly replaced by the classical...

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Evidence of Urban Civilizations Found in Bolivian Amazon Forests!

By Dr. Inés Urdaneta / Physicist at Resonance Science foundation

A very unexpected discovery has surprised the world. The Amazon Forest, thought to be a reservoir of wildlife and primitive indigenous settlements, was also the seat of advanced civilizations. By advanced, we mean that they were large urban societies with civic and ritualistic activities, in contrast with nomadic small tribes.

Using a remote-sensing technology called Lidar to map the terrain from a helicopter, researchers found that ancient Amazonians had built and lived in densely populated centers, starting about 1,500 years ago. The immense settlements stretch across some 80 square miles of the Llanos de Mojos region of Bolivia.

“The complexity of these settlements is mind blowing”, Heiko Prümers, archaeologist at the German Archaeological Institute.


The findings include 22-metre-tall conical pyramids and earthen buildings that were encircled by kilometres of elevated roadways and...

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Probing The Unruh Effect with Quantum Optics

Lando Calrissian Heads to Hyperspace. An accelerating object, such as a spaceship traveling at relativistic speeds (close to the speed of light), should generate showers of faintly glowing particles, according to the predicted phenomenon known as the Unruh effect.

By Dr. Ines Urdaneta / Physicist at Resonance Science Foundation

Einstein’s principle of equivalence states that gravity and acceleration are indistinguishable from each other. The best example to see this, is to place oneself inside an elevator. Initially it is static in a floor, and when it starts to move upwards (i.e., it accelerates or changes its speed) one feels pushed towards the floor, as if one is pulled by gravity, even though the effect comes from an acceleration in the opposite direction.

Now, let us imagine that an object is in space, in a perfect vacuum; a supposedly friction-less environment, and it accelerates suddenly. The first question that arises is … how can it even move, if there is...

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The Pumping Heart at the Center of Our Galaxy: Black Hole Sagittarius A* Image, is Finally Here!

Image Credit: EHT Collaboration.

By Dr. Inés Urdaneta / Physicist at Resonance Science Foundation

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), the largest scientific initiative, has given the world the closets look and confirmation of Sagittarius A*, the black hole in the center of our Galaxy, the Milky Way. It is just 26,000 light years away from Earth!

In our RSF scientific blog we had been following the EHT initiative. EHT is an international collaboration that aims to obtain the first image of the event horizon of a black hole, using a virtual telescope the size of the earth.  Different telescopes scattered across the planet collect the data of the same object, which is then combined and processed by a supercomputer to produce a final image through the interferometry technique, just as the one used in ALMA, but this time at a global scale.  By triangulating the data from the nine telescope arrays – (ARO/SMT)(APEX)(IRAM)(JCMT)(LMT)...

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More Evidence of Quantum Behavior at Biological Scale: Proton Tunneling in DNA

By Dr. Inés Urdaneta / Physicist at Resonance Science Foundation

Former RSF articles had addressed quantum effects that have been observed in biology, more precisely, in the microtubules, giving plausible support to the fact that biology, just as consciousness, could have a quantum origin.   

Now, a paper published in the journal Communications Physics, entitled An open quantum systems approach to proton tunnelling in DNA,  is shedding light on the physical mechanisms that might cause the protons to jump across between the DNA strands.

The DNA strands usually depicted as two double helices, are composed of molecules named nucleotides, which organize in two strains to form each of the helices, as depicted below:


Figure 1: DNA strands composed of nucleotides or molecules Thymine (T), Adenine (A), Guanine (G) and Cytosine (C), which organize creating a double helix. Image source : 


To study such proton transfer, the authors analyzed...

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Quantum Origin of Human Consciousness Gets Preliminary Experimental Support!

By Dr. Inés Urdaneta / Physicist at Resonance Science Foundation

Experimental evidence of quantum behavior in neural microtubules could support Penrose and Hameroff’s hypothesis that consciousness originates in the microtubules of the neurons, as described by their theory called Orchestrated objective reduction (Orch -OR). 

In former RSF articles [1,2,3], biophysicist William Brown had addressed the Orchestrated objective reduction theory (Orch OR), originally proposed by physicist Roger Penrose and anaesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff, in the 1990.

As William Brown brilliantly explains [1]:

“One of the key features of Hameroff’s and Penrose’ theory is called Orchestrated Objective Reduction (Orch-OR), in which it is theorized that the state vector (the wavefunction that describes a particle) of delocalized free electrons within tubulin undergoes an observer-independent reduction (an objective versus subjective collapse of the wavefunction). As the...

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The Origin of Quantum Mechanics II : the Black Body Radiator and the Quantization of the Electromagnetic Field

Image source here.

By Dr. Inés Urdaneta / Physicist at Resonance Science Foundation

In a past article entitled “The origin of quantum mechanics I: The Electromagnetic field as a wave” we had introduced the most relevant features of light as an electromagnetic field propagating in a 3D trajectory through space. Among the notions addressed we had explained the spectrum -or colors- of light, the components of the electromagnetic fields and their continuous, wavelike nature. In this second article we explain why the wavelike nature of light was not enough to explain certain behaviors of the interaction between light and matter; the understanding of such phenomena required introducing a “corpuscular” description of light that marked the origin of quantum theory, changing the paradigm with respect to classical physics.     


 The Black body Radiator and the quantization of the electromagnetic field 

Quantum mechanics was...

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The Origin of Quantum Mechanics I: The Electromagnetic Field as a Wave

By Dr. Inés Urdaneta / Physicist at Resonance Science Foundation


Electromagnetic spectrum of light 

We are used to the words light and color. In scientific terms, light is made of electromagnetic waves that are mainly radiated from a radiative source (for instance, the sun) and absorbed by an object (absorbed by the electrons in the atoms that make the object, for instance, a T-shirt). An electromagnetic wave traveling through space is an energy oscillation propagating through space in 3 dimensions; traveling, for instance, from A to B along the red curved trajectory (known as circularly polarized motion) shown in the Figure below, depicting the complete movement which forms a helical trajectory. The axes x, y, and z serve as frames of reference for the movement. Note that the helical red curve has a 3D red tubular shadow to emphasize the 3D shape of this whole movement; it is a vortex spiraling helical through space. This red trajectory can be separated into two...

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