Metamaterials are a class of super-materials with remarkable characteristics. Metamaterials have been engineered to bend and shape light, providing an effective invisibility cloak.
The basic idea of a time crystal is relatively straight-forward. A crystalline medium has a periodic, or regularly repeating structure. However, because of entropic considerations (forcing the substance into its lowest energy state) the crystal will not have the same repeating structure in all directions: it will be asymmetric -- this is known as symmetry breaking of spatial translation symmetry. So whereas with normal crystals this repeating, periodic structure is asymmetric spatially (the spatial configuration of the crystalline lattice); with a time crystal the asymmetric periodicity is not in spatial organization but in time-varying media.
Ultracold matter normally serves as the medium, where ions are cooled to such a low...
The mechanism underlying the formation of crystals is the breaking of symmetry in the spatial domain. Also responsible for phase transitions between liquid and solid it has long been associated with a system in equilibrium – that is a system in its ground state.
However, two independent teams of scientists have recently confirmed the existence of crystals in a non-equilibrium state – known as time crystals. Predicted in 2012 by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek these systems break symmetry in the time domain – where they show periodicities at an emergent sub-harmonic frequency and are robust to external perturbations. Could this be a resonant frequency of the quantum vacuum?
The basic idea of a time crystal is relatively straight-forward. A crystalline medium has a periodic, or regularly repeating structure. However, because of entropic considerations (forcing the substance into its lowest energy state) the crystal...
Writing in the International Journal of Nanotechnology, Dr. Maestro and co-authors explain how the physical and chemical properties of water have been extensively studied for over 100 years and revealed some odd behavior not seen in other substances. In recent research, Dr. Maestro's team was able to identify two distinct phases or states of liquid water. The preliminary findings suggest that the structure of liquid water can strongly influence the stability of proteins and how they are denatured at the crossover temperature, which may well have implications for understanding protein processing in the food industry but also in understanding how disease arises when proteins misfold.
The question of life on Venus, of all places, is intriguing enough that a team of U.S. and Russian scientists working on a proposal for a new mission to the second planet — named Venera-D — are considering including the search for life in its mission goals. If all goes as planned, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) could one day be cruising the thick, sulfuric-acid clouds of Venus to help determine whether dark streaks that appear to absorb ultraviolet radiation could be evidence of microbial life.
In the last section of one of our articles dealing with the so called information loss paradox of black hole physics - Stephen Hawking Goes Grey – we included a quick description of the cutting-edge work of two astrophysicist Carlo Rovelli and Francesca Vidotto describing what they came to call Planck Stars, which is gaining much interests in the popular press.
The information loss paradox is such a hot-bed of theoretical modeling right now because it suggests that either our theory of quantum physics or our model of black holes is flawed or at least incomplete (the most likely case being both/and, as is usually the solution to seeming paradoxes, which results from either/or thinking). Additionally, and perhaps most importantly, it is also recognized with some prescience that resolving the information loss paradox will hold the key to a holistic description of quantum gravity, and therefore be a major advance towards a...
The EmDrive, originally developed by Roger Shawyer at SPR Ltd., is a propellant-free microwave thruster that produces acceleration via an electromagnetic cavity without need for traditional fuel sources. After several successful experimental demonstrations of the EmDrive’s ability to produce thrust by NASA’s Eagleworks laboratory, several researchers are using the quantum mechanical model of Pilot Wave theory to describe how the engine interacts with the quantum vacuum to produce thrust.
New images from NASA’s latest Cassini probe mission shows Saturn’s hexagon shaped storm in more detail than ever before. The intriguing hexagonal pattern was first discovered in 1988 from the earlier Voyager flybys of 1980 and 1981 and was later confirmed by the first Cassini observations. The hexagonal structure, extending 20,000 miles wide and 60 miles deep, swirls around the northern hemisphere at the same rate as Saturn’s rotational velocity.
By William Brown, Resonance Science Foundation Research Scientist
The popular titles stating that Hawking says, “there are no black holes” are incorrect.
Recently there has been a fair amount of publicity about the publication of a transcription of a talk given by Stephen Hawking at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics in Santa Barbara, California, in August 2013, where Hawking discusses his possible resolution to the so called Information Paradox and the firewall theorem. In the extremely oversimplified explanation given by several media commentators it has been said that Stephen Hawking has refuted the existence of Black Holes with misleading titles such as - Stephen Hawking: 'There are no black holes' (from Nature magazine one of the most prestigious scientific journals). In fact this was absolutely not the case. Hawking did not say there are no black holes – he merely suggested that the classical notion of a gravitational...
What would you call two people wrapped up in a phone call? Phonon entanglement. This facetious example is actually very analogous to what has been accomplished in a quantum experiment involving two macroscopic (observable to the naked eye) sized diamonds. In this experiment, molecular assemblies seemed to be strongly interrelated between the two diamonds despite being separated by a sizable space. This instantaneous interaction at a distance, in which the quantum state of two particles – or in this case 1016 atoms – appear to be linked together is referred to as entanglement.
Normally this requires extremely cold temperatures (a few degrees above absolute zero), or special containment systems to keep the particles from interacting with the environment. But diamonds have several characteristics that obviate the need for these extreme conditions. Because of the rigid...