& Faculty Articles

May 14, 2023

The origin of spacetime is one of the most intriguing questions of the fundamentals of physics. This is one of the many questions that has essentially troubled scientists for centuries. Modern-day theorists have come up with several frameworks that have tried to approximate the main conditions that led to the emergence of spacetime. Some of these theories are emergent gravity, causal set theory, information theory, and multiple models within the enterprise of quantum gravity.

Physicists have been pondering for long that space and time are essentially derived properties from something more concrete, however, it is still not very clear as to what that more fundamental thing might be. There are several pieces of evidence in the scientific literature that apparently hint towards the non-fundamentality of spacetime. Essentially with the gauge-gravity duality proposal, theories of spacetime emergence...

May 09, 2023

^{Numerical simulations have found that excitons can become a BEC -Bose Einstein Condensate- and this mechanism would explain the high efficiency of energy transport in photosynthesis of plants. The exciton-condensate mechanism could be harnessed to enhance energy transfer in synthetic systems.}

Photosynthesis is an extremely efficient biological process in plants, algae, and some types of bacteria, that utilizes light energy and carbon dioxide (CO_{2}) to produce oxygen (O_{2}) and chemical energy stored in glucose (a sugar).

Numerical simulations are showing that Bose Einstein condensates may be the key for such a high efficiency, and this phenomenon challenges what modern physics defines as possible regarding fundamental mechanisms in biological systems as it implies a quantum process that is not expected to happen at room temperature and in disordered (noisy) conditions that potentially degrade any quantum...

Mar 17, 2023

By Resonance Science Foundation scientists Dr. Inés Urdaneta & William Brown

It has been widely proven that the information of quantum states can be transported to remote locations through quantum teleportation. As such, it is well established that information states can be effectively teleported between two quantum systems, but what about other properties, like energy? Now, recent experiments have directly demonstrated the teleportation of energy by utilizing the spatial entanglement of quantum vacuum zero-point energy fluctuations. In addition to being a direct demonstration of the ability to leverage the intrinsic entanglement state of the quantum vacuum to teleport energy, the protocols have potential applications in a wide variety of quantum devices and quantum information technologies, like entanglement harvesting, considerations of the parallel of quantum energy teleportation with wormhole-qubit teleportation (ER = EPR), understanding quantum...

Feb 09, 2023

^{Source of image https://newatlas.com/triple-quantum-entanglement-photons/42116/}

In a study to appear in *Physical Review Letters *[1]*, *researchers report that entangled photons traveling in corkscrew paths have resulted in holograms that offer the possibility of dense and ultrasecure data encryption.

Commonly, there are two ways of having light carry information: through its polarization and through its angular momentum, in particular its orbital angular momentum (OAM).

The polarization concerns the geometrical orientation of light’s electromagnetic wave oscillations (of the electric and magnetic components of light). As explained in our former RSF article The origin of quantum mechanics I: The Electromagnetic field as a wave, an electromagnetic wave such as light (also known as electromagnetic radiation or EMR) consists of a coupled oscillating electric field and magnetic field which are always...

Oct 06, 2022

^{The three Nobel Laureates of the 2022 Nobel Prize in Physics, for their experiments with entangled particles that established Bell’s inequality violations and pioneered quantum information science. From left-to-right: Alain Aspect, John Clauser, and Anton Zeilinger. Credit: The Nobel Prize in Physics, 2022}

We are thrilled about this year’s physics Nobel prize announcement because the topic concerned is extremely relevant in the context of our Unified Physics Theory.

Quantum entanglement, coined by Albert Einstein as *spooky action at a distance*, has its origin in a thought experiment from Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen, based on a discussion about the apparent impossibility of quantum mechanics to provide a complete description of reality. Such impossibility was due to the Heisenberg incertitude principle, positing that position and momentum of quantum particles can’t be...

May 06, 2022

Black holes are instrumental in the study of the unification of Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity because they are macroscopic quantum objects—essentially like large particles (which should give a clue that particles are small black holes). In a black hole construct one can study the effects of strong gravity and quantum field theory in a singular system, enabling one to understand both in a singular framework. This also means, however, that one needs a unified theory of quantum gravity to fully understand black holes (and other quantum systems).

The thermodynamics and quantum information (or entropy) of a black hole are of key consideration, especially the relationship between the information comprising...

Jan 12, 2022

What is this 240-year-old problem all about?

Leonhard Euler (1707 - 1783), Swiss mathematician and physicist, is most popularly known for his glorious equation called Euler's Identity: *e ^{iφ}* + 1 = 0, depicted below.

^{Geometric interpretation of Euler's identity, where i represents the imaginary axis of the complex plane and φ is the angle.}

Euler’s contributions in mathematics have been indispensable for the development of physics, particularly in quantum mechanics. As if that were not enough, now the quantum solution to Euler’s puzzle will probably mark a milestone in quantum computation, and in information theory. The puzzle as such consists of the following: Euler had examined the problem of having six different regiments, each with six officers of different ranks, and he wondered if these 36 officers can be arranged in a 6x6 square, so that each row and column contains one officer of...

Jan 03, 2022

*Tardigrade revived after most inhospitable conditions yet documented for the meiofauna organism, setting a record for the conditions under which a complex form of life can survive.*

A new study has claimed to have taken a tardigrade— a microscopic multicellular organism known to tolerate extreme physiochemical conditions via a latent state of life known as cryptobiosis—and prepared it in a type of superconducting Josephson junction known as a *transmission line shunted plasma oscillation qubit*, or transmon for short, causing the tardigrade (in the suspended cryptobiosis state) to purportedly become entangled in the qubit system.

_{Figure from: K. S. Lee et al., “Entanglement between superconducting qubits and a tardigrade,” arXiv:2112.07978 [physics, physics:quant-ph], Dec. 2021, Accessed: Jan. 03, 2022. [Online]. Available: http://arxiv.org/abs/2112.07978}

When the suspended tardigrade was...

Dec 17, 2021

By Resonance Science Foundation biophysicist William Brown

Quantum spin liquids are exotic phases of matter that offer potential applications in robust quantum information processing with topological qubits. Quantum spin liquids are a phase of matter that feature long-range quantum entanglement involving the magnetic dipoles, or spin, of electrons. Unlike in conventional magnets where the magnetic dipoles of electrons all align and freeze into place, electrons in this new exotic phase are constantly changing and fluctuating like a liquid— leading to one of the most entangled states of matter ever conceived.

Until recent investigations it was unknown if such a highly quantum correlated magnetic state could be realized in an actual physical system. Now, using a 219-atom programmable quantum simulator a team of Harvard researchers have shown that quantum matter and protected quantum information processing are possible with topological spin liquids. Their findings...

Jun 05, 2020

The question above could be preceded with the following one: Is space an illusion?

Since the magnitude of a force like electromagnetic and gravity between two objects is inversely proportional to the distance between them, it seems plausible to conclude objects only interact with other objects when they are close, and the closer they are, the stronger the interaction. For instance, when bringing two magnets towards each other, one can feel the increase in the rejection between them (if approached by the same pole) or attraction between them (if opposite polarity). And since the force can be felt when the objects are still not in contact, one could say that the force is mediated by a field. Fields spread out as they propagate outside of the object.

This dependence of forces and interactions upon distance is the main characteristic of the principle of locality. Locations and speeds of objects are...

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