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Many compact gravitational objects in the cosmos such as black holes, naked singularities, and wormholes, can only be detected by their shadows’ signatures. Distinguishing their different natures through their shadows is a difficult task because many times their shadows are very similar. Therefore, we can’t rely exclusively on this information to discern unambiguously the specific spacetime geometries from the objects.
For instance, the radio images obtained from the Event Horizon Telescope to directly observe the accretion disks of the supermassive black holes in the galactic centers, are hard to interpret since the information about their gravitational field is coupled non-linearly to the magneto-hydrodynamics of the system.
The main feature analyzed in such images, is their intensity profile. An interesting approach to constrain further the space time geometry, is to...
CREDIT: SEAN KELLEY/NIST
Neutrons form a major component of baryonic matter. Except for hydrogen, neutrons are present in the central region (nucleus) of the atoms of almost all the elements. Although they are electrically neutral, they are very crucial for the determination of atomic structure and its composition. One of the key reasons why they are influential is due to the fact that they can penetrate materials that optical radiations like X-rays usually cannot.
The de Broglie hypothesis of quantum theory tells us that elementary particles can possess dual characteristics, wave and particle, depending on the situation. Just like the electrons, the wave characteristics of neutrons can also be employed to study materials and one of the major advantages in this regard is that the wavelength can be turned extremely small which in turn results in a high-resolution image of the sample under study....
By: William Brown, scientist at the Resonance Science Foundation
Water is one of the most abundant molecules in the universe, and has a simple chemical composition of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. However, this abundant and seemingly simple molecule underlies astonishing properties arising from the peculiar molecular and intermolecular configurations of water. Starting at the molecular configuration where the hydrogen moieties and unbonded electron pairs of the oxygen atom form a tetrahedral molecule: naively, we might assume that the simplest binding arrangement would be a linear molecule, like carbon dioxide (which as a result does not exist as a liquid and goes straight from a solid to a gas via sublimation), however in a water molecule the hydrogen atoms bind to the single oxygen atom with a specific bond angle of 104.5°. This tetrahedral configuration of the water molecule produces a partial electric-dipole, which makes water ionically interactive and...
Credit: Zosia Rostomian
Cosmic inflation is a theory governing the dynamics of the early universe, moments after the grand cosmic event called the Big Bang. MIT physicist Alan Guth was the first one to propose the inflationary theory in the early 1980s however, it was later advanced by other influential physicists like Andrei Linde and Paul Steinhardt [1-3]. The theory mainly deals with the exponential expansion of space and subsequently the large-scale structure formation in the universe during its evolutionary stages. It is also suggested by the theory that the epoch of inflation lasted from 10−36 seconds to sometime between 10−33 and 10−32 seconds after the Big Bang. But in order to articulate the events following the Big Bang admirably, one needs to have a full-fledged quantum theory of gravity, which is yet a substantial challenge for physicists.
By: William Brown, scientist at the Resonance Science Foundation
In the book Rhythmic Oscillations in Proteins to Human Cognition , a compendium of avant-garde researchers takes a fresh look at the mechanics of nature to emphasize the importance of cyclical, harmonic interrelationships of oscillatory phenomena, especially in biophysics and biochemistry. The book is part of a larger series of publications set to explore and document fundamental research carried out globally from astrophysics to particle physics, from stock market to economic theories, and from plant biology to consciousness. The editors Anirban Bandyopadhyay, a senior Scientist at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) in Tsukuba, Japan— whose patents include a time crystal model for building an artificial human brain — and Kanad Ray, professor and Head of the Department of Physics at the Amity School of Applied Sciences— explain that their objective in the book series is to...
Credit: Ella Maru Studio
A vortex is a physical phenomenon in fluid dynamics wherein flows in a region of a fluid revolve around a fixed axis. On the macroscopic level, vortices are easily observed as whirlpools, tornadoes, and smoke rings however, they also form on microscopic regimes as quantized objects. In the former case, classical laws completely govern the dynamics of vortices but in the latter, there is a deviation from classical to quantum behaviour since the temperature at which quantum fluids exist is low enough that the laws of quantum mechanics predominate.
Vortices display dynamical motion and such vortices are also characterized by certain physical properties like mass, energy as well linear and angular momentum. Previous work has revealed multiple facets of vortices and their interactions in different physical conditions. Citing a few instances – physicists have...
One of the aspects of nature that has fascinated thinkers for centuries is time. Luminary physicist Isaac Newton considered time to be an absolute entity i.e., the same for all places in the universe and independent of observers. This notion was very crucial for the advent of Newtonian mechanics. The concept of absolute time paves the way for another term called absolute space, which according to Newtonian conviction are two separate facets of objective reality not dependent on each other. However, this idea about time and space underwent a major alteration after Einstein came up with his influential theory of relativity, which changed the very foundations of how we thought of time, space and their interactions with physical events.
Time, which is regarded as a fourth dimension after the introduction of Einstein’s relativity theory, generally...
Spatial Topography of the Brain
A meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging data of neuronal activity in advanced meditation practitioners has discovered a reorganization of information processing topography in which brain regions involved in present-awareness have increased activity while ego-centric and subject-object (discriminatory) neuronal information processing layers are mitigated . The researchers identify the neural correlates associated with the feeling of unity of experience—a state that advanced meditation practitioners can experience, often described as a non-dual state of experience that does not maintain the strong distinction between self-other or subject-object information, but rather a unified experience of oneness, or singularity.
The study is based on Qin et al.’s (2020) neural model (Linking bodily, environmental and mental states in the self—A...
Original footage by photographer and witness, Carlos Díaz
In our former RSF article About the UFO Hearings I: Unidentified Aerial Phenomena UAP, we had addressed a few remarkable cases of the UAP phenomena, some of which are being currently discussed in the congressional hearings in the United States. While this is all happening at the seemly highest government rank, under the upmost discretion, thousands of testimonies worldwide give a very different picture.
Among the huge number of testimonies and declassified documents, in this second part of the series we focus on the pilot, military, and civilian cases that we consider extremely relevant.
Concerning direct testimonies and witnesses, we find:
A planet that orbits a solar-type star and supposedly is a part of a solar system like ours with goldilocks conditions capable of supporting life and liquid water is commonly referred to as an exoplanet. The first exoplanet that was discovered to be revolving around a star like our sun was 51 Pegasi b. It is located about 50 light-years away in the Pegasus constellation and was discovered in 1995 by Swiss astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz . This discovery won them a share of the 2019 Nobel prize in physics. Since the first detection, thousands of exoplanets have been discovered by probes sent to interstellar space by agencies like NASA.
Several factors are responsible for determining whether a newly discovered planet could be categorised as Earth-like. Here is a step-wise breakdown of all the important processes that scientists adopt in the classification of...