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3D Map of The Milky Way Questions Our Understanding of Expansion

By Dr. Amira Val Baker, Resonance Science Foundation Astrophysicist

The biggest map of our galaxy just got revealed and it confirms the intriguing discrepancy in the value of the Hubble constant, further questioning our understanding of the expanding Universe.

Hubble’s constant – which is essentially a measure of the speed of the expanding universe – is determined by two different methods. One method looks at the early universe through the observation of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the other method looks at the local universe through the light emitted by Cepheid variables.

In a recent news post, we described how Nobel laureate Adam Reiss and his team at the Space Telescope Science Institute determined a value for the Hubble constant 9% higher than that found by the CMB method. This value was found to an improved accuracy compared to previous studies and thus brings into question the reason for such a discrepancy.

Now with the help of Gaia, the...

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Tetrahedral Geometry of Water Found to Account for it’s Remarkable Properties

biophysics science news Mar 28, 2018
By Resonance Science Foundation

Water-like anomalies as a function of tetrahedrality

Water is the most common and yet least understood material on Earth. Despite its simplicity, water tends to form tetrahedral order locally by directional hydrogen bonding. This structuring is known to be responsible for a vast array of unusual properties, e.g., the density maximum at 4 C, which play a fundamental role in countless natural and technological processes, with the Earth’s climate being one of the most important examples. By systematically tuning the degree of tetrahedrality, we succeed in continuously interpolating between water-like behavior and simple liquid-like behavior. Our approach reveals what physical factors make water so anomalous and special even compared with other tetrahedral liquids. ---John Russo,Kenji Akahane, and Hajime Tanaka. Water-like anomalies as a function of tetrahedrality. PNAS, March 26, 2018.

The properties of water have fascinated scientists for...

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Improved Accuracy on Hubble Constant Suggests New Physics

astrophysics science news Mar 02, 2018
By Resonance Science Foundation Research Team

The accuracy of the Hubble constant has been a topic of debate since its discovery in the 1920’s. When an agreement seemed to be finally on the horizon a new measuring technique showed a discrepancy and now that discrepancy has just been verified to even more accuracy.

The Hubble constant was discovered by Edwin Hubble in 1929 through his observational studies of the recession velocities of galaxies. Hubble found that the recession velocity of galaxies increased with increasing distance at a proportional rate, now known as the Hubble constant.

The Hubble constant has since been measured with varying degrees of accuracy from 500km/s/Mpc to 100 km/s/Mpc until finally agreeing on ~70 km/s/Mpc. However, the alternative method for measuring the Hubble constant – from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) – yields a slightly lower number. This discrepancy has now been confirmed with even greater accuracy by Nobel...

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Why Is Everything So Dark?

Article by Dr. Amira Val Baker, Resonance Science Foundation Research Scientist

When something seems a little mysterious or we just don’t understand what is going on we like to describe it with the adjective ‘dark’.

This is one of the reasons why the term ‘dark’ matter got coined which was first proposed to explain the anomaly observed in the rotational velocities of galaxies. That is – the observed rotational velocities of the gas and dust at the outer edges of a galaxy is rotating just as fast as the gas and dust near its center. This anomaly was first noted in 1978 by Vera Rubin and W. Kent Ford who made precise measurements utilizing a new instrument that Ford himself had designed. At first, they thought their data could be erroneous, but then their results were corroborated by subsequent observations of galactic rotational velocities, suggesting that there was indeed an anomaly between what is expected and what was observed!

So, what is going...

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Egyptian Stone Predates the Sun

By Dr. Amira Val Baker, Resonance Science Foundation Astrophysicist

Recent analysis of a stone found in the Libyan Desert Glass area of southwest Egypt, has sparked debate and a rethink of the current consensus on the formation of the solar system.

In a study, due to be published next month, a team of international researchers announced the resulting analysis of a stone that was subsequently named Hypatia after the ancient female astronomer of Alexandria.

Utilizing techniques from electron scanning microscopy, to proton induce X-ray emission and micro-Raman spectroscopy – the results revealed compounds not found anywhere on our planet, solar system or any known meteorite. As well, a lack of silicates was found which sets it apart from interplanetary dust particles and all known cometary material. Previous analysis of noble gas and nitrogen isotope studies suggest an extraterrestrial origin, which along with these new results strongly suggests a pre-solar origin and could...

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Breaking electron waves provide new clues to high-temperature superconductivity

Superconductivity is a sought-after effect, but unfortunately it only enters this state at extremely low temperatures. Normal conductors are wasteful and inefficient so the desire to understand superconductivity and replicate the effects at higher temperatures is paramount.

A team of scientists now believe they may just be on the edge of these important insights. In an experiment conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the team led by Hu Miao utilized a technique called resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) to track position and charge of the electrons.

What they found is that at high temperatures when superconductivity vanishes powerful waves of electrons begin to uncouple and behave independently. Studying these waves allows a new way of exploring the relationship between spin and charge – which seems to be affected when transitioning from the hottest temperatures allowable for superconductivity...

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Graphene could contain an unlimited “clean” energy source

by Olivier Alirol, Resonance Science Foundation Research Scientist

Stochastic processes are ubiquitous in nature. Also known as random processes, they can take multiple forms like a random walk, or a game of chance. Their studies have played a pivotal role in the development of modern physics starting with Langevin and the Brownian motion well illustrated by pollen grain floating in water. Recent advances in measurement precision and resolution have extended the framework of Brownian motion to unprecedented space-time scales and to a wider variety of systems, including atomic diffusion in optical lattices and spin diffusion in liquids. Studies of such systems are providing insights into the mechanisms and interactions responsible for stochasticity.

For example, membrane fluctuations are also a purview of Brownian motion. Where it becomes really interesting is when properly understood, the random membrane fluctuations can be usefully exploited for energy harvesting. From a stochastic...

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Chiral Water Super-Structure Forms Around DNA

science news Jun 02, 2017
RSF Science News Article
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Scientists Finally Measure the Strength of the Bonds That Hold Together Water

science news May 17, 2017

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The Origin of Metabolism

science news Apr 05, 2017
RSF Science News Article

A big question in science is how life emerged from ostensibly abiotic environments. What demarcates the transition from prebiotic matter to living systems? What environments could have fostered such complex chemical circuitry? Life is supported on three primary pillars: (1) replication – a molecular system capable of encoding information, most importantly its own reproduction; (2) Synthesis – the molecular machinery to read and execute encoded information to assemble new parts and replicate; and (3) Metabolism – the ability to extract energy from the environment to drive far-from equilibrium processes including chemical synthesis of molecular “building blocks”.

A popular explanation for the emergence of the first chemical replicators is known as the ‘RNA world hypothesis’. Ribonucleic acid is a polymer that is capable of encoding information in its nucleic acid sequence, and performing enzymatic catalysis – it...

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