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Fifth State of Matter confirmed!

faculty article Jun 03, 2019
By Dr. Inés Urdaneta, Resonance Science Foundation Research Scientist

We are familiarized with the four states of matter acknowledged so far: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Who would have imagined a fifth state of matter, containing simultaneously two states? Within the diversity of crystallization forms or phases of water from liquid to solid ice (more than seventeen crystalline and several amorphous ice structure), appeared a new one: ionic oxygen crystal with ionic hydrogen (mainly protons) moving inside, like a fluid. It has been named ice XVIII, and it is both a new phase of water (because it depends on applied temperature and pressure) and a new state of matter (because it gathers both a solid and a fluid).

Crystals are formed by ionized atoms, such that the electrostatic forces between cations and ions keep the lattice solid. The common salt crystal has anions of Chlorine (Cl-) and cations of Sodium (Na+), is in solid state at room temperature, but the superionic...

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What is an electron?

by Dr. Amira Val Baker, Resonance Science Foundation Astrophysicist

Everyone knows what an electron is – right? Surprisingly the answer to that is no – no one really knows what it is.

If you ask any high school student what an electron is, they will most probably tell you that it is a subatomic particle with negative charge and acts as the primary carrier of electricity. This answer is indeed correct – however it does not reveal the true nature of its reality.

This fundamental question has been the driving force for much of modern physics – and eventually led to the development of quantum field theory – yet we are not any closer to finding an answer.

To answer this question, you would think the first step would be to observe it. However, that is easier said than done. Electrons are simply too small for us to observe – the smallest thing we can observe is an atom and even that is not with a traditional microscope. In fact, we use electrons to...

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Resonance-based technology may provide inertial mass reduction

By William Brown, Biophysicist with the Resonance Science Foundation

US Navy Researcher Obtains Patents for Inertial Mass Reduction Device, Gravity Wave Generator, and Room-Temperature Superconductor.

In previous posts we have reported on the development of a novel propulsion device that does not require the emission of propellant or the combustion of chemical compounds. Instead, the device uses electromagnetic resonance to create thrust by emitting microwaves into a resonant cavity, giving it the moniker the EMdrive—EM for electromagnetic, as well as a play on the word “impossible drive” because due to the uniqueness of this form of thrust-generation, and the lack of understanding of exactly how thrust would be produced from this technology, it is thought by many scientist to be impossible.

Despite the strong skepticism and controversy regarding the theoretical foundations of the technology, actual empirical testing done at both Northwestern Polytechnical...

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Origins of Quantumbiology – What is Life?

By Dr. Johanna Deinert, MD, RSF Research Scientist

By the end of 2018 the Royal Society has published a review into the emergence of Quantumbiology as a field of scientific interest. Today, we still need to understand life in the context of its physical environment. Despite the impression this field was new, it emerged in synchronicity with the interpretation of Quantum Physics in the early 20th century – about 90 years ago.

Erwin Schrödinger was not the first to discuss the field of Quantumbiology in his famous 1944 book „What is life?”. Shortly after the mathematical framework of Quantum Mechanics was established in 1927, the field of biophysics and biochemistry flourished. The Organicists sought the middle ground between opposing mechanistic and vitalistic worldviews. Founder of the interdisciplinary field of General System Theory Ludwig von Bertalanffy was one of the early pioneers into the explanation of life. As early as 1928 he discusses a...

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Ancient Romans may have built structures that acted like seismic invisibility cloaks

by William Brown, Resonance Science Foundation Biophysicist

Ancient metamaterials: The Colosseum in Rome could be protected from earthquake damage by a seismic invisibility cloak. (Courtesy: Bengt Nyman/CC BY 2.0)

Best known for their use as invisibility cloaks, metamaterials are made from large arrays of tiny resonators that manipulate light and other electromagnetic waves in ways that are not typical of other more naturally occurring materials. The ability to manipulate waves in anomalous ways is not just restricted to those of electromagnetism, but to acoustic waves as well.

Previously Resonance Science has reported on the development of novel acoustic metamaterials that can bend, shape, and focus sound waves, some advancements of which can do so with almost perfect efficiency of the metamaterial to redirect sound, and even devices such as SoundBender that allows a sonic tractor beam to grab objects from behind obstacles.

The technological applications for this breakthrough in...

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Potential Habitability of Exoplanets

by William Brown, Resonance Science Foundation Research Scientist

featured image credit: Jack O’Malley-James/Cornell University: The intense radiation environments around nearby M stars could favor habitable worlds resembling younger versions of Earth.

A primary prediction of the USN model as presented in the Unified Spacememory Network publication by physicist Nassim Haramein, astrophysicist Amira Val Baker, and biologist William Brown is that the prebiotic chemistry that generates organic compounds and even complex biomolecules is occurring in nebulae throughout galaxies—a postulation that is termed universal biogenesis. Under this model, the precursors to cellular biology are abundant throughout the galactic medium, and therefore there is a very high likelihood that wherever conditions are hospitable to organisms, life will take hold there.

Considering the implications of universal biogenesis, it was very exciting when an Earth-like planet was discovered within...

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Galaxies Lacking Dark Matter

by Dr. Amira Val Baker, Resonance Science Foundation Astrophysicist

The main ingredient of galaxies does not seem to be so significant – as for the first time it seems the universe made a galaxy without dark matter.

Dark matter is a hypothetical form of matter theorized to explain the anomalous rotational velocities of galaxies. According to the laws of physics for a galaxy to exist it needs more mass than what is observed – this extra mass is in the form of dark matter. However, although thought to account for 27% of the Universe and be the significant ingredient in galaxies it still remains a mystery with no agreement on what it actually is. Find out more here.

With more and more debate as to the actual existence of dark matter a new discovery has put a spanner in the works and discovered a galaxy lacking one ‘vital’ ingredient – dark matter!

In 2015 a team of astronomers discovered the ultra-diffuse galaxy NGC1052-DF2. It was deemed a bizarre new...

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The Vacuum Catastrophe

faculty article Mar 21, 2019
By Dr. Amira Val Baker, RSF Research Scientist

Finally, we can all agree that the vacuum is just not living up to its name and is in fact teeming with energy. The question now is, how much energy?

Well the answer to that question is yet to be agreed upon and as always, it’s those quantum physicists and cosmologists that are in dispute. However, this dispute is rather significant – specifically 122 orders of magnitude significant. This discrepancy, known as the vacuum catastrophe, is named as one of the worst predictions in physics.

So why the discrepancy … well, it all depends on how you see the vacuum.

At the quantum scale scientists are only able to make inferences about what is going on. Albeit those inferences are pretty spot on, with quantum physicists successfully making very precise predictions. However, this predictive power does not give insight into the nature of the quantum realm and thus the quantum vacuum. Previously it was thought to be not much...

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Nature’s Effective Way of Conducting Electrons

by Dr. Olivier Alirol, Resonance Science Foundation Research Scientist

Circulation of electrons is essential in electronics and also for living organisms. While in our computers, we use semiconductor made mainly of silicon crystal, Nature has found a more effective way: proteins. Protein structures facilitate long-range electron-transfer. Scientists have shown that structural features of proteins have elements that facilitate electronic conductivity.

This phenomenon is largely due to the chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS). It causes in particular the reduction of the elastic backscattering in electron-transfer through chiral molecules. In fact, electron transmission shows that ordered films of chiral organic molecules act as electron spin filters. The CISS effect gives us important insight for spin-selective processes in biology and allows the use of chiral molecules in spintronics applications.

The electron-transfer process allows for the transfer of energy and information...

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The first interstellar visitor to our solar system, could it be a technosignature of extraterrestrial intelligence?

By: William Brown, Biophysicist with the Resonance Science Foundation

It was already a sensational story, an interstellar object was careening through our solar system, it was a historic first and an opportunity to learn more about the interstellar medium around us. Since it's first sighting in 2017, the sensationalism has only grown around ‘Oumuamua, as serious astrophysicists analyzing its anomalous trajectory and acceleration began to posit that it cannot be explained by any entirely naturalistic explanation. That is to say ‘Oumuamua’s anomalous behavior indicates that it is an engineered object, not a naturally occurring one.

Despite the fact that it is undoubted there is life throughout the universe and that inevitably will lead to multiple intelligent civilizations emerging, conservative scientists—particularly within the closely regulated confines of appropriate thought within academia—are hostile to the idea of observing such extraterrestrial...

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