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In Search of the Fifth Fundamental Interaction

Image Credit: ISTOCK

By Amal Pushp, Affiliate Physicist at the Resonance Science Foundation

Majority of the phenomena occurring in nature could be explained based on just four fundamental forces. In increasing order of their strength, these forces are gravitational force, weak nuclear force, electromagnetic force, and strong nuclear force. Although these fundamental interactions explain most of the physical events in our universe, there are some phenomena which could not be explained based on these known forces thus leading physicists to ponder whether there could be additional forces at play.

Some of the main reasons why the search for the fifth fundamental force has been propelled lately are dark mass and the agent causing the accelerated expansion of the universe, namely dark energy. Quintessence, a form of dark energy, has been speculated to be a candidate for the fifth force [1, 2]. Another fifth force probe that became famous during the 80s resulted from a reanalysis of the...

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On the Magnetic Moment of Electron and its Significance for the Standard Model

Credit: IOP Publishing  

By Amal Pushp, Affiliate Physicist at the Resonance Science Foundation 

The magnetic moment of an electron is essentially an inherent property that emerges from the particle’s charge and spin. Physicists know that elementary particles like electrons display two kinds of angular momentum: orbital and spin which collectively is known as the spin-orbit coupling. This collective dynamical behavior further gives rise to the magnetic dipole moment or simply the magnetic moment. In fact, the magnetic dipole moment can also appear separately as spin and orbital magnetic dipole moment.  

In general, the magnetic moment can be described as a representation of the strength of any magnetic source. Consider a classical representation of an electron. Due to the charge distribution of the electron, which is essentially rotating, there is a creation of a magnetic dipole or in other words, the electron behaves as a microscopic bar magnet which...

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