Barely living “zombie” bacteria and other forms of life constitute an immense amount of carbon deep within Earth’s subsurface—245 to 385 times greater than the carbon mass of all humans on the surface, according to scientists nearing the end of a 10-year international collaboration to reveal Earth’s innermost secrets.
By: Terry Collins & Katie Pratt; Deep Carbon Observatory
Deep Carbon Observatory collaborators, exploring the ‘Galapagos of the deep,’ add to what’s known, unknown, and unknowable about Earth’s most pristine ecosystem
Bacteria, archaea, and other microbes—some of them zombies—exist even in deepest known subsurface, and they’re weirder than their surface counterparts
~70% of Earth’s bacteria and archaea live underground
Earth’s deep life suggests microbes might inhabit the subsurface of other planets...
There is an obvious flaw in the current predominant physics model of the fundamental behavior and nature of the universe: current physics theory is a contentious amalgamation of two separate models that seem to be incompatible in characterizing a couple of important properties, like gravity and time. One of the greatest challenges to unifying the description of the microscale, described by quantum physics, with the macroscale, described by Einsteinian mechanics—is delineating the transition between what is considered non-classical, or quantum behavior, and classical behavior that seems characteristic of the macroscale. If “stuff” behaves differently when it is at molecular scales and below, then two different models are needed to describe the “stuff” that comprises the universe; one for the microscopic scale and the other for the macroscopic.
An interesting turn of events...
That the human brain contains magnetite is well established; however, its spatial distribution in the brain has remained unknown. A new study shows that the reproducible magnetization patterns of magnetite is preferentially partitioned in the human brain, specifically in the cerebellum and brain stem.
In 1992 researchers identified the presence of magnetite—a permanently magnetic form of iron oxide—in human brain tissue. Iron in the body was no surprise. It is commonly found in ferritin, an intracellular protein common to several organisms, and the magnetite was thought to have formed biogenically, with some possibly originating in ferritin. But the presence of magnetite in the brain could be more than incidental. Various studies have shown that brain cells respond to external magnetic fields. There’s also a disturbing link to neurodegenerative disease: Evidence exists of elevated levels...
It is often assumed that a structure’s surface can be appropriately represented as a two-dimensional area, completely flat and devoid of any depth. However, in reality, two-dimensional surfaces do not exist in nature, if zoomed in sufficiently even the most seemingly flat surface has 3-dimensional structure. This can pose a problem when physics that have been formulated with two-dimensions are re-examined using a more realistic 3D model.
Just such a situation arose when astronomer Martin Asplund forewent the usual 2D model of the Sun’s surface, and instead used a supercomputer to model it as 3-dimensional surface. Asplund was hoping to formulate a more accurate model for analyzing spectral and seismological data to better understand the Sun’s interior.
Since the interior cannot be directly observed, sound and light emissions emanating from the Sun’s surface are a window into the...
The EM drive – a radio frequency (RF) resonant cavity thruster – appears to produce an ‘impossible’ thrust. Impossible – in that it apparently violates Newtons third law of motion: “For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.” Now in a recent paper by a group of Portuguese physicists, led by Prof. Jose Croca from the Center for Philosophy of Sciences at the University of Lisbon, present a possible explanation for this observed ‘impossible’ thrust.
The EM drive was first proposed in 2001 by British inventor Roger Sawyer and has subsequently been tested by numerous groups around the world alongside possible explanations for its propulsion. However, still a hot topic of debate, a consensus on the level of thrust and an explanation for the thrust has not been found.
Croca and his team hope to change this through their explanation...
The EmDrive, originally developed by Roger Shawyer at SPR Ltd., is a propellant-free microwave thruster that produces acceleration via an electromagnetic cavity without need for traditional fuel sources. After several successful experimental demonstrations of the EmDrive’s ability to produce thrust by NASA’s Eagleworks laboratory, several researchers are using the quantum mechanical model of Pilot Wave theory to describe how the engine interacts with the quantum vacuum to produce thrust.