Credit: Andrey Shirokov, Moscow State University
Tetraneutron, as the name suggests, is a hypothesized cluster of four neutrons bounded together as a single and compact stable system. It is generally believed that the tetraneutron state is not a long-lived phenomenon and would be observed for a temporary period which is less than a billionth of a trillionth of a second and ultimately gets decayed. Scientists call this state a resonance, as viewed from the window of particle physics. Also, from the theoretical standpoint, the existence of this 4-neutron state is not much supported by the standard mainstream models of nuclear forces and its physical existence would also mean that the foundations of our understandings regarding nuclear forces and their interactions would have to be significantly revised.
Now, a team of researchers from the Technical University of Darmstadt in Germany has published a paper in Nature...
Mitochondria are most well known as the energy producing organelles of the cell, producing chemical energy via ATP production in all Eukaryotic species. However, mitochondria have a much broader role than simple centers of energy production in the cell and play critical roles in a range of processes from controlling cell fate via programmed cell death (called apoptosis)—central to tissue morphogenesis and anti-tumorigenic regulation— to regulating gene expression (via modulating metabolite concentrations like cyclic AMP), to name but a few of the multitudinous cellular processes involving this dynamic organelle.
Because of the ancestral nature as an endosymbiont, mitochondria are extremely active within cells and are even described as exhibiting social behaviors —indicating high levels of complex information processing with intercommunication and coordination of activity — so much...
Image source: exciton’s probability cloud showing where the electron is most likely to be found around the hole.
Whereas our direct experience with protons in everyday life is not evident at all, our experience with electrons is quite different. Many of us are probably familiar with the phenomenon of static electricity that bristles our skin when we rub certain materials. We are also probably used to the notion of electricity as a current or flow of electrons that can light a bulb, turn on an electrical device, or even electrocute someone if not handled properly. We are probably also aware that matter is composed of atoms, and that atoms are composed mainly of protons and electrons. Most of our daily experience is governed by electrons and their interactions with light. Electrons also govern the physico-chemical properties of atoms. Interestingly, the inference and discovery of the electron predates the...
Predictions of theoretical physics can’t be proved in a true sense but can only be verified to accurate levels of precision through experimental tests and modelling. There are several theories being proposed by people in the scientific community to explain the features of a particular phenomenon but only a few get lucky and stand the test of time. Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is one of the most precise theories of physics and is also the first theory that has achieved a proper and viable correlation between quantum mechanics and special relativity.
QED explains many features of quantum systems and their interaction. For example, electrons, which are elementary particles characterized by a negative charge and intrinsic spin, communicate with the atomic nucleus of an atom through the exchange of particles of light or photons. This interaction and interrelationship between the electron and...
The discovery of completely new and unanticipated forces acting between biomolecules could have considerable impact on our understanding of the dynamics and functioning of the molecular machines at work in living organisms. 
Every second within the cells of your body there are billions of biochemical reactions taking place, including at least 130,000 protein-to-protein and protein-to-DNA interactions that are key to cellular functionality—regulating homeostasis, metabolism, biosynthesis, replication, and growth. How is this staggering level of activity coordinated in such a remarkable fashion within the cellular environment? Which as described, is quite crowded with myriad proteins, solutes, metabolites, and other biomolecules. In current models, there are no explanations for the remarkable level of coordination—the innumerable biomolecules are thought to jostle around haphazardly under...
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The origin of prebiotic RNA (ribonucleic acid) is one of the deepest mysteries in biology.
RNA and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) are nucleic acids; macromolecules called biopolymers, and they are essential in life, since they play a critical role in biological processes such as coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes. RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides (monomers composed of 5-carbon sugars, phosphates groups and a nitrogenous base), just like DNA, but unlike DNA that has a paired double strand, RNA is found in nature as a single strand folded onto itself. If the sugar involved is ribose, the biopolymer is RNA; if the sugar is the ribose derivative deoxyribose, the resulting biopolymer is DNA.
Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to bring genetic information that directs synthesis of specific proteins, among other functions.
The general idea in the development of...
The standard model of particle physics is currently the best theory out there describing the fundamental constituents of nature. The model accurately describes the basic forces and their interactions with gravity being the only exception.
Despite the successes that the model boasts of, there are certain shortcomings of the theory that scientists around the world are trying to address and resolve. One of the key motivations is to find out the foundational building blocks of the so called Dark matter and Dark Energy which are believed to be made up of new unknown and undiscovered particles.
Recently, an interdisciplinary team of scientists led by physicists from Boston college in the US announced that they have discovered a new particle – or previously undetectable quantum excitation – known as the axial Higgs mode, a magnetic relative of the Higgs boson.
“The detection a decade ago...
"Supersymmetry is not a tight and efficient theory, welded together to explain observations. It’s a convoluted mess of mathematical models that could potentially explain anything, or nothing at all." – Tom Hartsfield, PhD physicist and Big Think Contributor
In a new essay for Big Think PhD physicist Tom Hartsfield urges his colleagues not to build another Large Hadron Collider—a next-generation LHC++ —and delineates a number of reasons why it could end up being a colossal waste of money and yield little to no new discoveries to advance physics and our understanding of the fundamentals of Nature.
Tom Hartsfield lists a few critical reasons why it is a bad idea to build another LHC:
In recent years, an extraordinary and unexpected feature in high energy collisions (collisions of subatomic particles at extremely speeds, performed mainly at CERN) has surprised the physicists working on the nucleonic scale: a fractal pattern that had been observed intermittently in high energy experimental data (particularly in the behavior of the particle multiplicity against the collision energy), can be accounted for by the Yang-Mills Field (YMF) equations, which recently have been shown to present fractal structure, as claimed by the authors of the study.
These theories that apply to subatomic particles, such as protons, electrons and quarks, belong to the category of distinguishable particles called fermions, and the way these particles distribute in different energy levels (also known as states) is described by Fermi Dirac Statistics. Fermi Dirac statistics is commonly replaced by the classical...
By: William Brown, Biophysicist at the Resonance Science Foundation
We first reported on the break-through observation of a time crystal in our article Time Crystals – A New Phase of Matter. Now, in the next major development, the same team who generated the new phase of matter have created the first time-crystal two-body system in an experiment that seems to bend the laws of physics.
As the name would imply, a time crystal is not an easy system to prepare and experiment with. Perpetual ground state motion in equilibrium defines a time crystal, however observing such motion is famously unfeasible, because experimentally a time crystal only achieves stability if it is isolated from the environment and the observer in a quantum state, where either the perpetuity or equilibrium requirements can be “bent”. Much like the quantum mechanical bit, or qubit, coupling separate time crystals while retaining sufficient isolation is a major challenge for researchers...