& Faculty Articles

Mar 08, 2022

**By Dr. Inés Urdaneta, Physicist, Research Scientist at Resonance Science Foundation**

One of the largest discrepancies found in modern physics is the ~122 orders of magnitude difference (i.e., 122 zeros!) between the vacuum energy density estimated by observations at the cosmological scale (a density which is represented by the cosmological constant) and the quantum vacuum energy density at the Planck scale as calculated or predicted by quantum physics.

Just to grasp the magnitude of this difference of 122 zeros we must recall that each position in a number refers to an order of magnitude. For instance, 10 is one order of magnitude bigger than 1, and 100 is two orders of magnitude bigger than 1. As we keep adding zeros, we see an increase called *exponential*. From this perspective, the size of a proton is of the order of 10^{-15} m (this means that compared to a ruler the length of a meter, the proton is 15 orders of magnitude smaller, or a quadrillion times smaller) and the...

Feb 08, 2022

A lot of information about the large-scale nature of the universe can be derived from detailed analysis of its ubiquitous thermal electromagnetic field, called the cosmic microwave background (CMB), for instance analysis of suppressed fluctuations at large wavelengths reveals a closed geometry of the universe— a torus-type geometry as we described in the RSF article A New Signature of a Multiply Connected Universe [1].

_{Inhomogeneities attributed to quantum fluctuations during the inflationary period are amplified across large-scale universal structure, and when inflation ends, they become density fluctuations and cause the differences in temperature observed in the CMB. Its an intriguing signal to study because it reveals an epoch when atomistic and cosmological structure where one-and-the same, and quantum behaviors that typify nature evolves into large-scale structural features of the universe. (Credit...}

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