The information paradox may finally be resolved with the help of the holographic theory – but this time on a fractal scale.
Ever since Hawking predicted the thermal emission of black holes and their subsequent evaporation, the question arose as to where this information goes. In the context of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics – which states that the information about a system is entirely encoded in its wave function – information is always conserved. Thus, any loss in information, like that predicted by Hawking and his evaporating black holes, would violate quantum theory. This problem is known as the information paradox.
To resolve this paradox, physicists have been actively looking for a mechanism to explain how the information of the infalling particles re-emerges in the outgoing radiation. To begin, they need to determine the entropy of the Hawking radiation.
Image: The cosmic microwave background as seen by the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite. Credit: ESA and the Planck Collaboration
The photo above is quite common among astronomers and astrophysicists. It depicts what is known as the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the very ancient light coming from the beginnings of our universe. It is supposed to be the leftovers of the grand explosion birthing our Universe, called the Big Bang.
When analyzing the expansion of the universe, astrophysicists imagined that the expansion could be rewinded, just like a film, and that this backward movement would show the collapse into a singularity. Together with the astronomical observations of the CMB radiation, they concluded that the universe had to be flat. But recent observations with better precision are showing a different picture. An anomaly in data from the best-ever measurement of the CMB is offering...
Galaxies seem to be communicating with each other across vast distances never thought possible before, putting the cosmological principle into question again.
These gravitationally bound structures consisting of gas, dust and trillions of stars exist in the trillions. Most observed galaxies are spiral galaxies like our very own Milky Way, with others being elliptical, lenticular or irregular. The formation and evolution of a galaxy is generally revealed in galactic kinematics, particularly the rotation which is constrained by the conservation of angular momentum. Through studying the rotation of galaxies, scientists can thus infer how the galaxy was formed and how it evolved. Did it form from a rotating dust cloud? Did it evolve as a merger?
As would be expected, galactic behaviour – including its rotation – is influenced by that of its neighbours. However, in a recent report, Korean scientists Joon...
We have been increasingly hearing much more about black holes and their role in the cosmos.
Black holes are exotic creatures, mainly classified in two types according to their size: stellar black holes (up to tenths of solar masses) and supermassive black holes (billions of solar masses). We commonly used to believe that, independent of their size, black holes all share the same feature: they devour everything getting too close and entering their event horizon.
For decades, astronomers have looked for galaxy clusters containing rich nurseries of stars in their central galaxies. Instead, they found powerful, giant black holes bursting out energy through jets of high-energy particles. Extremely hot particles emanating from these black holes were found to be preventing the formation of stars. So where are all the stars coming from?
The leading theories have proposed two mechanism to elucidate this mystery. One concerns the...
Twentieth Century technology has relied on the use of fuels and chemical propellants to propel our ships, planes, and cars. The propulsion technology of the future will not use chemical combustion to produce thrust, and the 21st century will see the emergence of propellant-less propulsion systems. Such technologies will provide the means to travel faster than ever before at a fraction of current costs and with no pollution by-products.
This becomes absolutely crucial for interplanetary and interstellar travel, as we have stated before in RSF commentary1 reporting on Resonance-based technology may provide inertial mass reduction—the future of space travel will not be performed with chemical propellants. As an example, to date the most viable proposal for an interstellar mission with current technological capabilities is the Breakthrough Starshot project which will use a fleet of light sail probes propelled to...
Image by Marshall Lefferts http://cosmometry.com/. See RSF in Perspective below for more info on this image.
Just recently, new experimental data on the charge radius of the proton was published in Science, confirming Nassim Haramein’s 2012 prediction based on his Holofractal Universe Theory as being exact. Previously, Nobel Laureate Hideki Yukawa and others gave hints the charge radius could be smaller than the current paradigm standard estimated. For us it is very important that the prediction is a result of a much broader theoretical perspective based on Quantized Gravity, Spin Dynamics and Unified Physics. Now, why could this be important for your everyday life?
Haramein’s Generalized Holographic Approach successfully predicts many more observed parameters (micro- and macrocosmic) and allows biological processes to be integrated as well. Life must no longer happen in undefined physical realms. We...
The universe now seems to be expanding at a rate even faster than previously thought.
Since first proposed by George Lemaitre and the subsequent confirmation by Edwin Hubble’s observational studies of galactic recession velocities, the expansion of the universe has long been a topic of debate. Improved methods along with differing techniques has continuously yielded discrepancies. For example, techniques utilizing standard candles, in the form of Supernovae Type 1a, Cepheid variables or Quasars, for nearby observations of the modern universe yields higher values than those found from the distant Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations of the early universe.
Now a team of scientists at the University of California, Davis, have found the highest value yet, suggesting that the universe is expanding at an even greater rate than previously thought.
The team led by Geoff Chen combined new adaptive optics...
The role of science, as a methodology and tool, is to help us better understand the nature of our world and universe, and ultimately our relationship to it. This means that no legitimate phenomenon that is observed should be excluded from this quest for greater elucidation. However, there has been a general exclusion of developing a science of consciousness—that is, explaining the nature, source, and role of consciousness in the universe.
The primary reason for this general neglect of such a highly germane topic to anyone who experiences periods of “wakefulness” (i.e. all of us that are conscious and aware) is the unfounded assumptions underlying the scientific consensus opinion on the nature of consciousness.
A major unchecked assumption is that consciousness is only an epiphenomenological state generated by electrical activity of the highly developed central nervous system of the human brain....
Those hungry, all devouring black holes may in fact be much more generous than we have been led to believe.
Black holes are often given bad press. This, however, is not indicative to their true nature, which is in fact quite stable. A team of scientists are now looking to do away with all the bad press and have proposed that black holes are in fact life givers.
Traditionally when thinking about life in the universe – other than our own – we look to stars and something known as the Goldilocks zone. Like its namesake, the Goldilocks zone is not too hot and not too cold – it’s just right. That is, the temperature is just right for liquid water and thus life to exist. Albeit, these assumptions about what is just right for life to exist are just that –assumptions – based on what we know as life.
It is now known that the central nuclei of galaxies are home to a super massive black...
Those enigmatic black holes that lead to places unknown may not be what we thought they were – or at least that’s what some scientists think.
Since first proposed in 1784 by John Mitchell and their prediction in 1915 by Einstein’s theory of general relativity, evidence supporting the idea of black holes has continued to be found.
Described as infinitely dense points in space time – where not even light can escape – the presence of a black hole is thus inferred from the gravitational effects on the surrounding material. But what if something else – other than a black hole – could produce these same effects?
Such a question was addressed in two recent papers by a team of scientists at the University of Hawaii. They consider the consequences of replacing all black holes with a class of objects with ‘dark energy’ interiors known as Generic Objects of Dark...